Pediatric Scoliosis

Pediatric Scoliosis is a medical condition that affects children wherein the spine bends to the side abnormally. It can be bent either to the right or the left. This curvature can be very severe or moderate. Any section of the spine can be bent but other regions include the chest area and the lower back.

Types of Pediatric Scoliosis:
1. Congenital Scoliosis: This is caused by vertebral anomalies at birth.
2. Idiopathic Scoliosis: This is further classified as infantile, juvenile, adolescent, according to when it begins in an individual.
3. Secondary Scoliosis: This is caused by a neuromuscular condition. (e.g. Spina Bifida, Cerebral Palsy).

Symptoms of Pediatric Scoliosis:

1) Uneven musculature on the spine.
2) Uneven hips or legs.
3) Slow nerve action.
4) Decreasing lung capacity.
5) Shortness of breath.
6) Chest pain.
7) One shoulder will be higher than the other.
8) One shoulder blade will be higher than the other.
9) The head will not be centered on the pelvis.
10) The waist will be flat on one side.
11) One side of the back may be higher than the other.

Causes of Scoliosis:
Idiopathic scoliosis cases are estimated at 65%. About 15 % of the cases are congenital (at birth) and 10% are caused by neuromuscular disease. Genetics play a role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Genital scoliosis occurs due to malformation of the spine during pregnancy. Secondary scoliosis worsens during the adolescent growth spurt.

Idiopathic Scoliosis
Idiopathic scoliosis is a condition wherein the cause is unknown. It can occur during any period in childhood. It usually happens during the adolescent growth spurt. It occurs during the ages of 11-16 for boys and 10-12 for girls.

Bracing

The bracing treatment is done to ensure the removal of spinal curve progression. It ensures the curve condition does not get worse. Braces are more effective when it is started early, when they are well-fitted and when the patient wears it for a prescribed time.
The different types of braces are:
1. Thoraco-Lumbo-Sacral Orthosis also called as the Boston brace or under-am brace is attached to the body. It is made of plastic. It works by applying pressure on the curvature thus preventing its progression. It is not noticeable under clothes.
2. Cervico-Thoraco-lumbo-Sacral-Orthosis is similar to TLSO brace but it also has a neck ring supported by vertical bars attached to the body of the brace.
3. Charleston Bending Brace This brace is typically worn by the patient while he or she is sleeping. It is molded to the patient when they are bent to the side, thus applying more pressure.

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